Healthcare costs of stroke and major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation treated with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants
Journal of Medical Economics, 2019
To assess long-term healthcare costs related to ischemic stroke and systemic embolism (stroke/SE) and major bleeding (MB) events in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) treated with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs).
Materials and methods
Optum's Clinformatics Data Mart database from 1/2009-12/2016 was analyzed. Adult patients with ≥1 stroke/SE hospitalization (index date) were matched 1:1 to patients without stroke/SE (random index date), based on propensity scores. Patients with an MB event were matched to patients without MB. All patients had an NOAC dispensing overlapping index date, ≥12 months of eligibility pre-index date, and ≥1 NVAF diagnosis. The observation period spanned from the index date until the earliest date of death, switch to warfarin, end of insurance coverage, or end of data availability. Mean costs were evaluated: (1) per-patient-per-year (PPPY) and (2) at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years using Lin's method.
The cost differences were, respectively, $48,807 and $28,298 PPPY for NOAC users with stroke/SE (n = 1,340) and those with MB (n = 3,774) events compared to controls. Cost differences of patients with vs without stroke/SE were $49,876, $51,627, $57,822, and $60,691 at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years post-index, respectively (p < 0.001). These cost differences were $31,292, $35,658, $44,069, and $47,022 for patients with vs without MB after 1, 2, 3, and 4 years post-index, respectively (p < 0.001).
Limitations include unobserved confounders, coding and/or billing inaccuracies, limited sample sizes over longer follow-up, and the under-reporting of mortality for deaths occurring after 2011.
The incremental healthcare costs incurred by patients with vs without stroke/SE was nearly twice as high as those of patients with vs without MB. Moreover, each additional year up to 4 years after the first event was associated with an incremental cost for patients with a stroke/SE or MB event compared to those without an event.
Rozjabek HM, Coleman CI, Ashton V, Laliberté F, Oyefesobi P, Lejeune D, Germain G, Schein JR, Yuan Z, Lefebvre P, Peterson ED