Real-World Economic Burden Among Patients With And Without Heart Failure Worsening After Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy

Advances in Therapy, 2021


Although cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has the potential to improve cardiac function in patients with heart failure (HF), a considerable portion of patients do not respond to therapy. This study assessed the economic burden among patients with and without HF worsening after receiving CRT in real-world practice.


In this retrospective claims-based study using Optum's de-identified Clinformatics® Data Mart Database (January 2007-December 2018), adults who received CRT were stratified into two cohorts based on whether they showed evidence of HF worsening within 180 days post-CRT implantation. Inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) was used to adjust for confounding, accounting for demographics (e.g., age, sex), the Quan-Charlson Comorbidity Index, other clinical characteristics, healthcare resource utilization (HRU), and healthcare costs during the 180 days pre-CRT (baseline period). Annualized all-cause and congestive HF-related HRU and healthcare costs from payer and patient perspectives were assessed from day 181 post-CRT (follow-up period), and compared between cohorts using incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and cost ratios (CRs).


This study included 12,753 patients (n = 4785 with HF worsening; n = 7968 without). Mean age was 72 years and roughly two-thirds were male. Baseline characteristics were balanced between cohorts post-IPTW. During follow-up, patients with HF worsening had significantly greater annual all-cause inpatient [adjusted IRR (95% confidence interval) = 1.55 (1.44, 1.66), p < 0.001], outpatient [adjusted IRR = 1.46 (1.32, 1.61), p < 0.001], and emergency department [adjusted IRR = 1.31 (1.22, 1.41), p < 0.001] visits. Mean annual total per patient payer-paid amounts were significantly higher for patients with HF worsening versus without HF worsening [adjusted CR = 1.68 (1.56, 1.80), p < 0.001]. Annual patient-paid medical costs were also higher for patients with HF worsening [adjusted CR = 1.31 (1.25, 1.38), p < 0.001]. Results were similar for congestive HF-related HRU and costs.


The incremental economic burden among patients with HF worsening following CRT is substantial. Efforts aimed at CRT optimization may help reduce this burden.

View abstract


Chung ES, Rickard J, Lu X, DerSarkissian M, Zichlin ML, Cheung HC, Swartz N, Greatsinger A, Duh MS