Real-world incidence of inflammatory bowel disease among patients with other chronic inflammatory diseases treated with interleukin-17a or phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors
Current Medical Research and Opinion, 2019
(1) To assess the real-world incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in patients with or without other chronic inflammatory diseases (CIDs), and (2) to understand whether IBD incidence differs in CID patients receiving interleukin-17a signaling antagonists (anti-IL-17a) or phosphodiesterase 4 inhibitors (PDE4i) versus patients using a biologic not indicated for IBD or biologic-naïve patients.
The MarketScan Research Databases (January 2010-July 2017) were used. A CID population was created from patients with ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, psoriasis or rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The CID population was stratified into different cohorts based on the baseline treatments received: (1) anti-IL-17a, (2) PDE4i, (3) biologic-naïve, and (4) non-IBD-indicated biologic (i.e. biologics not indicated for the treatment of IBD and excluding anti-IL-17a and PDE4i); a non-CID cohort was also created. The 1 year incidence rate (IR) of IBD was compared between cohorts using a logistic regression model adjusting for baseline characteristics.
CID cohorts included older patients than the non-CID cohort (mean age range: 48.4-54.4 versus 46.3 years). The 1 year IR of IBD was 1.41% in the anti-IL-17a cohort (N = 355), 0.68% in the PDE4i cohort (N = 2195), 0.47% in the biologic-naïve cohort (N = 424,767), 0.51% in the non-IBD-indicated biologic cohort (N = 56,317) cohort and 0.25% in the non-CID cohort (N = 1,008,436). After 1 year of follow-up, the odds of having IBD were 2.85 (p = .0213) and 1.42 (p = .1891) times higher in the anti-IL-17a and PDE4i cohorts, respectively, compared to the biologic-naïve cohort, and 2.86 (p = .0253) and 1.21 (p = .4978) times higher compared to the non-IBD-indicated biologic cohort. Similar results were observed in sensitivity analyses where patients with RA only were excluded (since anti-IL-17a and PDE4i agents are not indicated for RA).
Anti-IL-17a treatment was associated with a nearly three-fold higher risk of IBD in CID patients. Treatment decisions for patients with CIDs should take into account the risk of developing of IBD.
Emond B, Ellis LA, Chakravarty SD, Ladouceur M, Lefebvre P