Association Between Weight Gain and the Incidence of Cardiometabolic Conditions Among People Living with HIV-1 at High Risk of Weight Gain Initiated on Antiretroviral Therapy

Infectious Diseases and Therapy, 2022


Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been associated with weight gain in people living with HIV-1 (PLWH); however, limited research has assessed whether early weight gain post-ART initiation is associated with metabolic or cardiovascular outcomes among PLWH at high risk of weight gain (i.e., female, Black or Hispanic). This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of metabolic and cardiovascular outcomes between PLWH at high risk of weight gain following an observed ≥ 5% or < 5% weight/body mass index (BMI) gain within 6 months following ART initiation.


A retrospective longitudinal study using Symphony Health, an ICON plc Company, IDV® electronic medical records (October 1, 2014-March 31, 2021) identified adult female, Black, or Hispanic treatment-naïve PLWH who initiated ART and who had ≥ 1 weight or BMI measurement pre- and within 6 months post-treatment (landmark period). Inverse probability of treatment weighting was used to account for differences between PLWH who experienced ≥ 5% and < 5% weight/BMI gain. The time to each outcome was compared between cohorts using weighted hazard ratios (HRs) after the landmark period.


Weighted ≥ 5% and < 5% cohorts included 620 and 632 patients, respectively; baseline characteristics were similar between the two cohorts (mean age: ~ 48 years, ~ 59% female, ~ 49% Black, ~ 17% Hispanic). During a mean 2-year follow-up, PLWH with ≥ 5% weight/BMI gain were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; HR = 2.19; p = 0.044). There were no significant differences in the incidence of any other outcomes between the study cohorts.


Despite a short 2-year follow-up, female, Black or Hispanic PLWH experiencing ≥ 5% weight/BMI increase within 6 months following ART initiation had an increased risk of T2DM, but not other metabolic or cardiovascular outcomes, likely due to the short follow-up period. Further research with longer follow-up and specific ART regimens is warranted to examine the impact of ART-related weight gain on long-term clinical outcomes.

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McComsey GA, Emond B, Shah A, Bookhart BK, Rossi C, Milbers K, Lafeuille MH, Donga P