Attainment of Early, Deep Prostate-Specific Antigen Response in Metastatic Castration-Sensitive Prostate Cancer: A Comparison of Patients Initiated on Apalutamide or Enzalutamide

Urologic Oncology, 2023


Deep prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response, defined as a ≥90% decline in PSA (PSA90), is an important early response indicator for achieving radiographic progression-free and overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer (mCSPC) treated with a next-generation androgen signaling inhibitor (ASI), such as apalutamide or enzalutamide. The objective of this study was to compare deep PSA response among patients with mCSPC newly initiated on apalutamide or enzalutamide.


Clinical data from 69 community urology practices in the United States were evaluated. Patients with mCSPC were classified into cohorts based on their first dispensation (index date) for apalutamide or enzalutamide and were followed until the earliest of treatment discontinuation, initiation of a new next-generation androgen receptor signaling inhibitor, end of clinical activity (including death), or end of data availability (03/05/2021). Inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) were used to reduce baseline confounding. PSA90 was defined as the earliest ≥90% PSA decline relative to baseline PSA. The proportion of patients achieving PSA90 and time to PSA90 were reported using weighted Kaplan-Meier analysis and weighted Cox proportional hazards models, respectively.


The apalutamide and enzalutamide cohorts comprised 186 and 165 patients, respectively. Patient characteristics were generally well balanced after IPTW. By 6 months, patients initiated on apalutamide had a 56% greater likelihood of attaining PSA90 than those initiated on enzalutamide (P = 0.014). This result remained significant through the end of the observation period. The median time to achieving PSA90 was 3.1 months with apalutamide and 5.2 months with enzalutamide.


This real-world study demonstrated that apalutamide initiation is associated with a significantly higher likelihood of achieving ≥90% reduction in PSA as compared to initiation of enzalutamide. Moreover, this deep PSA response was observed to occur earlier with apalutamide treatment than with enzalutamide.

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Lowentritt B, Pilon D, Khilfeh I, Rossi C, Muser E, Kinkead F, Waters D, Ellis L, Lefebvre P, Brown G