Determinants of Meningococcal ACWY vaccination in adolescents in the US: completion and compliance with the CDC recommendations
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 2020
Since 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) guidelines for routine MenACWY vaccination in the US include a primary dose before age 16 y, preferably at ages 11-12 y, with a booster dose at age 16 y. Data on rates and drivers of meningococcal vaccination completion (receipt of both doses) and compliance with recommendations (receipt of primary dose at ages 11-12 y followed by booster at 16 y) down to state-level are limited.This study evaluated rates and determinants of MenACWY vaccination completion and compliance in adolescents aged 17 y based on data from the annual National Immunization Survey-Teen between 2011 and 2016. Individual- and state-level determinants of completion and compliance were assessed using uni-level and multi-level multivariable regression models. Average national rates were 23.2% and 12.1% for completion and compliance, respectively, with large inter-state variation observed (completion: 8.7-39.7%; compliance: 3.1-26.2%). Beyond the state of residence, factors significantly associated with a higher likelihood of both completion and compliance included being male, up-to-date on other routine vaccines, having private or hospital-based vaccine providers (vs. public) and having >1 child in the household. Factors specifically associated with completion included having >1 annual health-care visit and presence of a booster-dose vaccine mandate, while a history of asthma and high-risk health conditions had a positive association with compliance. State-level determinants of completion and compliance included pediatricians-to-children ratio and the proportion of Immunization Information System use among adolescents, respectively. Outcomes of this study may help guide clinical, policy and educational interventions to further increase MenACWY completion rates and reduce disparities in vaccination.