Functional limitations and health care resource utilization for individuals with cognitive impairment without dementia: Findings from a United States population-based survey 

Alzheimer's and Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Disease Monitoring. 2017;6:65-74


Little is known about functional limitations and health care resource utilization of people with cognitive impairment with no dementia (CIND).


Respondents with stable or progressive cognitive impairment (CI) after the first (index) indication of CIND in 2000-2010 were identified from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). Respondents never exhibiting CI were identified as potential controls. Propensity score-based optimal matching was used to adjust for differences in demographics and history of stroke. Differences between cohorts were assessed accounting for HRS survey design.


After matching, CIND respondents had more functional limitations (difficulty with ≥1 activities of daily living: 24% vs. 15%; ≥1 instrumental activities of daily living: 20% vs. 11%) and hospital stays (37% vs. 27%) than respondents with no CI (all P < .001). seventy five percent of cind respondents developed dementia in the observable follow-up (median time: ∼6 years).>


Even before dementia onset, CI is associated with increased likelihood of functional limitations and greater health care resource use.

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Andrews JS, Desai U, Kirson NY, Enloe CJ, Ristovska L, King S, Birnbaum HG, Fleisher AS, Ye W, Kahle-Wrobleski K