Hba1c control and cost-effectiveness in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus initiated on canagliflozin or a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist in a real-world setting

Endocrine Practice. 03 2018;24(3):273-287


To compare glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) control and medication costs between patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with canagliflozin 300 mg (CANA) or a glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) in a real-world setting.


Adults with T2DM newly initiated on CANA or a GLP-1 RA (index date) were identified from IQVIA™ Real-World Data Electronic Medical Records U.S. database (March 29, 2012-April 30, 2016). Inverse probability of treatment weighting accounted for differences in baseline characteristics. HbA1c levels at 3-month intervals were compared using generalized estimating equations. Medication costs used wholesale acquisition costs.


For both cohorts (CANA: n = 11,435; GLP-1 RA: n = 11,582), HbA1c levels decreased at 3 months postindex and remained lower through 30 months. Absolute changes in mean HbA1c from index to 3 months postindex for CANA and GLP-1 RA were -1.16% and -1.21% (patients with baseline HbA1c ≥7% [53 mmol/mol]); -1.54% and -1.51% (patients with baseline HbA1c ≥8% [64 mmol/mol]); and -2.13% and -1.99% (patients with baseline HbA1c ≥9% [75 mmol/mol]), respectively. Postindex, CANA patients with baseline HbA1c ≥7% had similar HbA1c levels at each interval versus GLP-1 RA patients, except 9 months (mean HbA1c, 7.75% [61 mmol/mol] vs. 7.86% [62 mmol/mol]; P = .0305). CANA patients with baseline HbA1c ≥8% and ≥9% had consistently lower HbA1c numerically versus GLP-1 RA patients and statistically lower HbA1c at 9 (baseline HbA1c ≥8% or ≥9%), 27, and 30 months (baseline HbA1c ≥9%). Continuous 12-month medication cost $3,326 less for CANA versus GLP-1 RA.


This retrospective study demonstrated a similar evolution of HbA1c levels among CANA and GLP-1 RA patients in a real-world setting. Lower medication costs suggest CANA is economically dominant over GLP-1 RA (similar effectiveness, lower cost).


AHA = antihyperglycemic agent BMI = body mass index CANA = canagliflozin 300 mg DCSI = diabetes complications severity index eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate EMR = electronic medical record GLP-1 RA = glucagon-like peptide 1 receptoragonist HbA1c = glycated hemoglobin ICD-9-CM = International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision-Clinical Modification ICD-10-CM = International Classification of Diseases-Tenth Revision-Clinical Modification IPTW = inverse probability of treatment weighting ITT = intent-to-treat MPR = medication possession ratio PDC = proportion of days covered PS = propensity score PSM = propensity score matching Quan-CCI = Quan-Charlson comorbidity index SGLT2 = sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 T2DM = type 2 diabetes mellitus WAC = wholesale acquisition cost.

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Wysham CH, Pilon D, Ingham M, Lafeuille MHEmond B, Kamstra R, Pfeifer M, Lefebvre P