Incidence of Cardiometabolic Outcomes among People Living with HIV-1 Initiated on Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitor Versus Non-Integrase Strand Transfer Inhibitor Antiretroviral Therapies: A Retrospective Analysis of Insurance Claims in the United States

Journal of International AIDS Society, 2023


Integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI)-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been associated with weight gain, though there is limited information on associations between ART-related weight gain and cardiometabolic outcomes among people living with HIV-1 (PLWH). We, therefore, evaluated risks of incident cardiometabolic outcomes following INSTI versus non-INSTI-based ART initiation in the United States.


We conducted a retrospective study using IBM MarketScan Research Databases (12 August 2012-31 January 2021). Treatment-naïve PLWH initiating ART (index date) on/after 12 August 2013 (approval date of the first second-generation INSTI, dolutegravir) were included and censored at regimen switch/discontinuation, end of insurance eligibility or end of data availability. We used inverse probability of treatment weights constructed with baseline (12 months pre-index) characteristics to account for differences between INSTI- and non-INSTI-initiating cohorts. Doubly robust hazard ratios (HRs) obtained from weighted multivariable Cox regression were used to compare time to incident cardiometabolic outcomes (congestive heart failure [CHF], coronary artery disease, myocardial infarction, stroke/transient ischemic attack, hypertension, type II diabetes, lipid disorders, lipodystrophy and metabolic syndrome) by INSTI-initiation status.


Weighted INSTI (mean age = 39 years, 23% female, 70% commercially insured, 30% Medicaid insured) and non-INSTI (mean age = 39 years, 24% female, 71% commercially insured, 29% Medicaid insured) cohorts included 7059 and 7017 PLWH, respectively. The most common INSTI-containing regimens were elvitegravir-based (43.4%), dolutegravir-based (33.3%) and bictegravir-based (18.4%); the most common non-INSTI-containing regimens were darunavir-based (31.5%), rilpivirine-based (30.4%) and efavirenz-based (28.3%). Mean±standard deviation follow-up periods were 1.5±1.5 and 1.1±1.2 years in INSTI- and non-INSTI-initiating cohorts, respectively. INSTI initiators were at a clinically and significantly increased risk of experiencing incident CHF (HR = 2.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08-4.05; p = 0.036), myocardial infarction (HR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.03-5.65; p = 0.036) and lipid disorders (HR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.04-1.58; p = 0.020); there was no evidence of an increased risk for other individual or composite outcomes.


Over a short average follow-up period of <2 years, INSTI use among treatment-naïve PLWH was associated with an increased risk of several cardiometabolic outcomes, such as CHF, myocardial infarction and lipid disorders, compared to non-INSTI use. Further research accounting for additional potential confounders and with longer follow-up is warranted to more accurately and precisely quantify the impact of INSTI-containing ART on long-term cardiometabolic outcomes.

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Rebeiro PF, Emond B, Rossi C, Bookhart BK, Shah A, Caron-Lapointe G, Lafeuille MH, Donga P