Matching-adjusted Indirect Comparisons of the Efficacy and Safety of Acalabrutinib Versus Other Targeted Therapies in Relapsed/Refractory Mantle Cell Lymphoma
Clinical Therapeutics, 2019
Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a rare subtype of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma that can be either aggressive or indolent. Although MCL usually responds well to initial treatment with chemotherapy-based regimens, the disease often relapses or becomes refractory within a few years. Acalabrutinib is a highly selective, potent, covalent Bruton tyrosine kinase inhibitor with minimal off-target activity. WIthout head-to-head clinical trial data, estimation of the comparative efficacy and safety of new therapeutic entities provides valuable information for patients, clinicians, and health care payers. The objective of this analysis was to compare the efficacy and safety of acalabrutinib versus other targeted therapies employed for the treatment of relapsed/refractory MCL by using matching-adjusted indirect comparisons.
Individual data from 124 patients treated with acalabrutinib in the Phase II ACE-LY-004 trial were adjusted to match average baseline characteristics of populations from studies using alternative targeted treatment regimens for relapsed/refractory MCL (for monotherapy: ibrutinib, bortezomib, lenalidomide, and temsirolimus; for combination therapies: ibrutinib + rituximab, bendamustine + rituximab, and lenalidomide + rituximab). Patient populations were matched on age, sex, race, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, Simplified MCL International Prognostic Index score, tumor bulk, lactate dehydrogenase concentration, extranodal disease, bone marrow involvement, and number of previous treatment regimens. Outcomes assessed included overall response rate (ORR), complete response (CR) rate, overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and adverse events.
After matching, acalabrutinib was associated with significant increases in ORR and CR rate (estimated treatment difference [95% CI]) versus ibrutinib (ORR, 9.3% [0.3-18.3]; CR, 14.9% [5.4-24.3]), bortezomib (ORR, 50.6% [40.2-61.0]; CR, 18.8% [9.1-28.5]), lenalidomide (ORR, 38.1% [27.1-49.1]; CR, 43.5% [34.8-52.3]), and temsirolimus (ORR, 40.7% [31.0-50.4]; CR, 27.1% [19.2-35.0]). PFS (hazard ratio [95% CI]) with acalabrutinib was significantly increased versus bortezomib (0.36 [0.26-0.51]), lenalidomide (0.65 [0.48-0.89]), lenalidomide + rituximab (0.57 [0.35-0.93]), and temsirolimus (0.33 [0.24-0.45]). Acalabrutinib was associated with significantly increased OS (hazard ratio) versus bortezomib (0.36 [0.22-0.61]) and temsirolimus (0.32 [0.23-0.44]). The overall safety profile of acalabrutinib was similar or better compared with the monotherapies; however, infection risk increased versus bendamustine + rituximab, and anemia increased risk versus lenalidomide + rituximab and ibrutinib + rituximab.
This comparison of targeted therapies used in the treatment of relapsed/refractory MCL showed that acalabrutinib has the potential to provide increased response rates, with trends for increased PFS and OS, and an improved safety profile.