National and regional description of healthcare measures among adult Medicaid beneficiaries with schizophrenia within the United States

Journal of Medical Economics, 2022


Provide the first national description across the US of variations in healthcare measures in 2018 among Medicaid beneficiaries with schizophrenia.

Materials and methods

Adult beneficiaries with ≥2 diagnoses for schizophrenia, and continuous enrollment with consistent geographical data in all of 2018 were identified from Transformed Medicaid Statistical Information System (T-MSIS) Analytic Files (TAF) data for 45 of 50 states. Antipsychotic (AP) utilization rates, including long-acting injectable APs (LAIs), quality metrics, and all-cause healthcare resource utilization and costs for claims submitted to Medicaid were reported nationally and by state. Pearson correlation evaluated associations between LAI utilization and total healthcare costs at state and county levels.


Across the US 688,437 patients with schizophrenia were identified. The AP utilization rate was 51% (state range: 24-77%), while the LAI utilization rate was 13% (range: 4-26%). The proportion of patients adherent to any AP was 56% (range: 19-73%). Within 30 days post-discharge from an inpatient admission, 22% (range: 8-58%) of patients had an outpatient visit, and 12% (range: 4-48%) had a readmission. The proportion of patients with ≥1 inpatient admission and ≥1 emergency room visit was 34% (range: 19-82%) and 45% (range: 20-70%). Per-patient-per-year total healthcare costs averaged $32,920 (range: $717-$93,972). At the county level, a weak negative correlation was observed between LAI utilization and total healthcare costs.


This study included Medicaid beneficiaries enrolled with pharmacy and medical benefits, including beneficiaries dually eligible for Medicare; results cannot be generalized to the overall schizophrenia population or those with other payer coverage.


In 2018, half of beneficiaries with schizophrenia did not submit any claims for APs to Medicaid, nearly half had an emergency room visit, and one-third had an inpatient admission. Moreover, healthcare measures varied considerably across states. These findings may indicate unmet treatment needs for Medicaid beneficiaries with schizophrenia.

View abstract


Patel C, Pilon D, Gupta D, Morrison L, Lafeuille MH, Lefebvre P, Benson C