Real-World Modifications of Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System Inhibitors in Patients with Hyperkalemia Initiating Sodium Zirconium Cyclosilicate Therapy: The Optimize I Study

Advances in Therapy, 2023


Hyperkalemia (HK) may result in disruptions of guidelines-concordant renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi), a standard of care in persons with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Such disruptions-dose reduction or discontinuation-diminish the benefits of RAASi, placing patients at risk of serious events and renal dysfunction. This real-world study evaluated RAASi modifications among patients who initiated sodium zirconium cyclosilicate (SZC) for HK.


Adults (≥ 18 years) initiating outpatient SZC (index date) while on RAASi were identified from a large US claims database (January 2018-June 2020). RAASi optimization (maintain same or up-titration of RAASi dosage), non-optimization (down-titration of RAASi dosage or discontinuation), and persistence were descriptively summarized following index. Predictors of RAASi optimization were assessed using multivariable logistic regression models. Analyses were conducted by subgroups, including patients without end-stage kidney disease (ESKD), with CKD, and with CKD + diabetes.


A total of 589 patients initiated SZC during RAASi therapy (mean age 61.0 years, 65.2% male), and 82.7% patients (n = 487) kept RAASi after index (mean follow-up = 8.1 months). Most patients (77.4%) optimized RAASi therapy after initiating SZC; 69.6% maintained the same dosage while 7.8% had up-titrations. A similar rate of RAASi optimization was observed among subgroups without ESKD (78.4%), with CKD (78.9%), and with CKD + diabetes (78.1%). At 1-year post-index, 73.9% of all patients who optimized RAASi were still on therapy, while only 17.9% of patients who did not optimize therapy were still on a RAASi. Among all patients, predictors of RAASi optimization included fewer prior hospitalizations (odds ratio = 0.79, 95% CI [0.63-1.00]; p < 0.05) and fewer prior emergency department (ED) visits (0.78 [0.63-0.96]; p < 0.05).


Consistent with clinical trial findings, nearly 80% of patients who initiated SZC for HK optimized their RAASi therapy. Patients may require long-term SZC therapy to encourage continuation of RAASi therapy especially after inpatient and ED visits.

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Agiro A, Amin AN, Cook EE, Mu F, Chen J, Desai P, Oluwatosin Y, Pollack CV