Treatment Patterns, Health Care Resource Utilization, and Spending in Medicaid Beneficiaries Initiating Second-generation Long-acting Injectable Agents Versus Oral Atypical Antipsychotics
Clinical Therapeutics. Oct 2017;39(10):1972-1985 e1972
Second-generation long-acting injectable therapies (SGA-LAIs) may reduce health care resource utilization (HRU) and healthcare costs compared with daily oral atypical antipsychotics (OAAs) in patients with schizophrenia due to reduced dosing frequency, delivery/monitoring by a health care provider, and improved adherence. The aim of the present study was to compare treatment patterns, HRU, and Medicaid spending in patients with schizophrenia initiated on SGA-LAIs (overall and according to agent) versus OAAs.
Medicaid claims data (2010-2015) from 6 states were used to identify adult schizophrenia patients initiated on SGA-LAIs or OAAs. Treatment patterns (proportion of days covered [PDC] ≥80% and persistence [no gap ≥30, 60, or 90 days] to index treatment), HRU, and costs were evaluated over 12 months and compared by using multivariable logistic, Poisson, and ordinary least squares regression models, respectively. P values for HRU and cost outcomes were obtained from a nonparametric bootstrap procedure. Costs (2015 US dollars) reflect the Medicaid payer's perspective before any rebate.
Overall, 3307 and 21,355 patients initiated SGA-LAIs and OAAs, respectively (paliperidone palmitate LAI [PP-LAI; n = 2182], risperidone LAI [n = 968], aripiprazole LAI [n = 108], and olanzapine LAI [n = 49]). During follow-up and compared with OAA patients, SGA-LAI patients were more likely to reach PDC ≥80% (odds ratio [OR], 1.28; P < 0.001) and be persistent (eg, no gap ≥60 days; OR, 1.45; P < 0.001) to the index treatment. Relative to OAA patients, SGA-LAI patients had fewer long-term care days (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.75; P < 0.001) and home care visits (IRR, 0.75; P < 0.001) but more mental health institute (IRR, 1.16; P < 0.001) and 1-day mental health institute (IRR, 1.16; P < 0.001) admissions. Moreover, PP-LAI patients had fewer inpatient days (IRR, 0.78; P = 0.004) versus OAA patients. SGA-LAI patients had lower medical costs (mean monthly cost difference [MMCD], -$168; P < 0.001) than OAA patients, offsetting more than one half of the higher pharmacy costs (MMCD, $271; P < 0.001). Compared with OAAs, only PP-LAI was associated with significant medical cost savings (MMCD, -$225; P < 0.001).
Medicaid beneficiaries with schizophrenia initiated on SGA-LAIs had better adherence and persistence to therapy over 12 months than patients initiated on OAAs. SGA-LAIs, particularly PP-LAI, were associated with lower medical costs that successfully offset more than one half of the higher pharmacy costs relative to OAA.
Pilon D, Tandon N, Lafeuille MH, Kamstra R, Emond B, Lefebvre P, Joshi K