Treatment Patterns, Health Care Resource Utilization, and Spending in Medicaid Beneficiaries Initiating Second-generation Long-acting Injectable Agents Versus Oral Atypical Antipsychotics

Clinical Therapeutics. Oct 2017;39(10):1972-1985 e1972


Second-generation long-acting injectable therapies (SGA-LAIs) may reduce health care resource utilization (HRU) and healthcare costs compared with daily oral atypical antipsychotics (OAAs) in patients with schizophrenia due to reduced dosing frequency, delivery/monitoring by a health care provider, and improved adherence. The aim of the present study was to compare treatment patterns, HRU, and Medicaid spending in patients with schizophrenia initiated on SGA-LAIs (overall and according to agent) versus OAAs.


Medicaid claims data (2010-2015) from 6 states were used to identify adult schizophrenia patients initiated on SGA-LAIs or OAAs. Treatment patterns (proportion of days covered [PDC] ≥80% and persistence [no gap ≥30, 60, or 90 days] to index treatment), HRU, and costs were evaluated over 12 months and compared by using multivariable logistic, Poisson, and ordinary least squares regression models, respectively. P values for HRU and cost outcomes were obtained from a nonparametric bootstrap procedure. Costs (2015 US dollars) reflect the Medicaid payer's perspective before any rebate.


Overall, 3307 and 21,355 patients initiated SGA-LAIs and OAAs, respectively (paliperidone palmitate LAI [PP-LAI; n = 2182], risperidone LAI [n = 968], aripiprazole LAI [n = 108], and olanzapine LAI [n = 49]). During follow-up and compared with OAA patients, SGA-LAI patients were more likely to reach PDC ≥80% (odds ratio [OR], 1.28; P < 0.001) and be persistent (eg, no gap ≥60 days; OR, 1.45; P < 0.001) to the index treatment. Relative to OAA patients, SGA-LAI patients had fewer long-term care days (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.75; P < 0.001) and home care visits (IRR, 0.75; P < 0.001) but more mental health institute (IRR, 1.16; P < 0.001) and 1-day mental health institute (IRR, 1.16; P < 0.001) admissions. Moreover, PP-LAI patients had fewer inpatient days (IRR, 0.78; P = 0.004) versus OAA patients. SGA-LAI patients had lower medical costs (mean monthly cost difference [MMCD], -$168; P < 0.001) than OAA patients, offsetting more than one half of the higher pharmacy costs (MMCD, $271; P < 0.001). Compared with OAAs, only PP-LAI was associated with significant medical cost savings (MMCD, -$225; P < 0.001).


Medicaid beneficiaries with schizophrenia initiated on SGA-LAIs had better adherence and persistence to therapy over 12 months than patients initiated on OAAs. SGA-LAIs, particularly PP-LAI, were associated with lower medical costs that successfully offset more than one half of the higher pharmacy costs relative to OAA.

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Pilon D, Tandon N, Lafeuille MH, Kamstra R, Emond B, Lefebvre P, Joshi K