Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: Part I-Real-World Treatment Patterns, Healthcare Resource Utilization, and Associated Costs in Later Lines of Therapy in the United States

Journal of Health Economics and Outcomes Research, 2022


Despite advances in tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase (CML-CP), a sizeable proportion of patients with CML-CP remains refractory or intolerant to these agents.


Treatment patterns, healthcare resource utilization (HRU), and costs were evaluated among patients with CML who received third or later lines of therapy (3L+), a clinical population that has not been previously well-studied, with unmet treatment needs as TKI therapy has repeatedly failed.


Adult patients with CML who received 3L+ were identified in the IBM® MarketScan® Databases (January 1, 2001-June 30, 2019) and the SEER-Medicare-linked database (January 1, 2006-December 31, 2016). Treatment patterns were observed from CML diagnosis. HRU and direct healthcare costs (payer's perspective, 2019 USD) were measured in a 3L+ setting.


Among 296 commercially insured patients with 3L+ (median age, 58.5 years; female, 49.7%), the median duration of first-line (1L), second-line (2L), and 3L therapy was 8.5, 4.2, and 8.3 months, respectively. The annual incidence rate during 3L+ was 3.4 for inpatient days, 30.8 for days with outpatient services, and 1.2 for emergency department visits. Mean per-patient-per-month (PPPM) total healthcare costs (pharmacy + medical costs) were $18 784 in 3L+, $15 206 in 3L, and $19 546 in 4L, with inpatient costs driving most of the difference between 3L and 4L (mean [3L] = $2528 PPPM, mean [4L] = $6847 PPPM). Among 53 Medicare-insured patients with 3L+ (median age, 72.0 years; female, 39.6%), the median duration of 1L, 2L, and 3L therapy was 9.7, 5.0, and 7.0 months, respectively. During 3L+, the annual incidence rate was 10.3 for inpatient days, 61.9 for days with outpatient services, and 1.5 for emergency department visits. Mean PPPM total healthcare costs were $14 311 in 3L+, $15 100 in 3L, and $16 062 in 4L.


Patients with CML receiving 3L+ rapidly cycled through multiple lines. Costs increased from 3L to 4L; in commercially insured patients, inpatient costs were responsible for most of the cost increase between 3L and 4L, underlying these patients' continued need for care.


These findings support the need for better treatment options in patients with CML undergoing later lines of therapy.

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Atallah EL, Maegawa R, Latremouille-Viau D, Rossi C, Guérin A, Wu EQ,  Patwardhan P