Economic Burden of Acute Otitis Media, Pneumonia, and Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Children in the United States after the Introduction of 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines During 2014-2018

BMC Health Services Research, 2023


Streptococcus pneumoniae remains a leading cause of morbidity, mortality, and healthcare resource utilization (HRU) among children. This study quantified HRU and cost of acute otitis media (AOM), pneumonia, and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD).


The IBM MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounters and Multi-State Medicaid databases from 2014 to 2018 were analyzed. Children with AOM, all-cause pneumonia, or IPD episodes were identified using diagnosis codes in inpatient and outpatient claims. HRU and costs were described for each condition in the commercial and Medicaid-insured populations. National estimates of the number of episodes and total cost ($US 2019 for each condition were extrapolated using data from the US Census Bureau.


Approximately 6.2 and 5.6 million AOM episodes were identified in commercial and Medicaid-insured children, respectively, during the study period. Mean cost per AOM episode was $329 (SD $1505) for commercial and $184 (SD $1524) for Medicaid-insured children. A total of 619,876 and 531,095 all-cause pneumonia cases were identified among commercial and Medicaid-insured children, respectively. Mean cost per all-cause pneumonia episode was $2304 (SD $32,309) in the commercial and $1682 (SD $19,282) in the Medicaid-insured population. A total of 858 and 1130 IPD episodes were identified among commercial and Medicaid-insured children, respectively. Mean cost per IPD episode was $53,213 (SD $159,904) for commercial and $23,482 (SD $86,209) for the Medicaid-insured population. Nationally, there were over 15.8 million cases of AOM annually, with total estimated cost of $4.3 billion, over 1.5 million cases of pneumonia annually, with total cost of $3.6 billion, and about 2200 IPD episodes annually, for a cost of $98 million.


The economic burden of AOM, pneumonia, and IPD among US children remains substantial. IPD and its manifestations were associated with higher HRU and costs per episode, compared to AOM and all-cause pneumonia. However, owing to their higher frequencies, AOM and all-cause pneumonia were the main contributors to the economic burden of pneumococcal disease nationally. Additional interventions, such as the development of pneumococcal conjugate vaccinees with sustained protection of existing vaccine type serotypes as well as broader inclusion of additional serotypes, are necessary to further reduce the burden of disease caused by these manifestations.

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Hu T, Song Y, Done N, Mohanty S, Liu Q, Sarpong EM, Lemus-Wirtz E, Signorovitch J, Weiss T