Impact of Tardive Dyskinesia on Physical, Psychological, Social, and Professional Domains of Patient Lives: A Survey of Patients in the United States

Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 2023


To assess the physical, psychological, social, and professional impact of tardive dyskinesia (TD) on patients in the United States.


An online survey (April 2020-June 2021) to assess patient burden of TD was developed using targeted literature review and interviews with clinicians, patients, and caregivers. Survey participants (aged ≥ 18 years) with current diagnoses of TD and schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder rated the 7-day impact of TD on their physical, psychological, and social functioning via Likert scales (scored from 1 [least impact] to 5 [most impact]). Impact scores were calculated and summarized descriptively overall by self-reported disease severity and underlying disease. Participants also completed the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire and reported the impact of TD on their underlying psychiatric condition.


Overall, 269 patients (mean [SD] age = 40.6 years [9.9]; 74.7% employed) responded to the survey. Mean (SD) impact scores of 3.1 (0.9), 3.5 (1.0), and 3.2 (1.1) were reported in the physical, psychological, and social domains, respectively, and scores increased with reported TD symptom severity. Patients with underlying schizophrenia reported the highest burden for all domains. Patients reported 66.2% activity impairment because of TD. Employed patients (n = 193) indicated 29.1% absenteeism, 68.4% presenteeism, and 73.5% overall work impairment. Over one-third of patients reported skipping/reducing (48.4%) or stopping (39.3%) their antipsychotic medication and stopping visits to clinicians treating their underlying condition (35.7%) because of TD.


TD imposes a substantial burden on patients' physical, psychological, social, and professional lives and impacts management of their underlying condition.

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Jain R, Ayyagari R, Goldschmidt D, Zhou M, Finkbeiner S, Leo S