The burden of tardive dyskinesia secondary to antipsychotic medication use among patients with mental disorders

Current Medical Research and Opinion, 2019


To assess the impact of developing tardive dyskinesia (TD), both with and without other pre-existing extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), on healthcare resource utilization (HRU) among patients with mental disorders receiving antipsychotic medications.


Data on patients receiving antipsychotics who had schizophrenia, major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder were extracted from a Medicaid claims database. Separate cohorts of TD patients with and without other EPS ("TD + EPS" and "TD non-EPS") were constructed and matched to patients in a non-TD/EPS control cohort at a ∼1:5 ratio. HRU outcomes were assessed using descriptive statistics and difference-in-differences techniques over baseline and follow-up periods defined as the 6 months before and after TD development, respectively. 


The TD + EPS (n = 289) and TD non-EPS (n = 394) cohorts were matched with 1398 and 1922 control patients, respectively. The percentage of patients with all-cause and mental-disorder-related inpatient admissions increased from baseline to follow-up in the TD + EPS (12.8% and 12.5%, respectively) and TD non-EPS (16.0% and 13.5%) cohorts; by contrast, slight decreases (∼3%) in these outcomes were observed in the matched controls. Difference-in-differences analyses demonstrated that development of TD was associated with a statistically significant increase of ∼15-19% in the percentage of patients with all-cause and mental-disorder-related inpatient admissions/visits. The within-cohort change from baseline to follow-up in the use of potential drugs for TD or EPS was similar between the TD cohorts and their matched controls.


This study demonstrates a significant economic burden associated with developing TD, as captured by increased HRU including inpatient admissions and ER visits.

View abstract


McEvoy J, Park T, Schilling T, Terasawa E, Ayyagari R, Carroll B