Incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease in children with commercial insurance or Medicaid coverage in the United States before and after the introduction of 7- and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines during 1998-2018
BMC Public Health, 2022
Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is a major cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) were introduced in the US in 2000 (PCV7) and 2010 (PCV13). This study estimated the annual incidence rates (IRs) and time trends of IPD to quantify the burden of disease in children before and after the introduction of PCV7 and PCV13 in the US.
IPD episodes were identified in the IBM MarketScan Commercial and Medicaid Databases using claims with International Classification of Diseases 9/10th Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Annual IRs were calculated as the number of IPD episodes/100,000 person-years (PYs) for children < 18 years and by age group (< 2, 2-4, and 5-17 years). National estimates of annual IPD IRs were extrapolated using Census Bureau data. Interrupted time series (ITS) analyses were conducted to assess immediate and gradual changes in IPD IRs before and after introduction of PCV7 and PCV13.
In commercially insured children, IPD IRs decreased from 9.4 to 2.8 episodes/100,000 PY between the pre-PCV7 (1998-1999) and late PCV13 period (2014-2018) overall, and from 65.6 to 11.6 episodes/100,000 PY in children < 2 years. In the Medicaid population, IPD IRs decreased from 11.3 to 4.2 episodes/100,000 PY between the early PCV7 (2001-2005) and late PCV13 period overall, and from 42.6 to 12.8 episodes/100,000 PY in children < 2 years. The trends of IRs for meningitis, bacteremia, and bacteremic pneumonia followed the patterns of overall IPD episodes. The ITS analyses indicated significant decreases in the early PCV7 period, increases in the late PCV7 and decreases in the early PCV13 period in commercially insured children overall. However, increases were also observed in the late PCV13 period in children < 2 years. The percentage of cases with underlying risk factors increased in both populations.
IRs of IPD decreased from 1998 to 2018, following introduction of PCV7 and PCV13, with larger declines during the early PCV7 and early PCV13 periods, and among younger children. However, the residual burden of IPD remains substantial. The impact of future PCVs on IPD IRs will depend on the proportion of vaccine-type serotypes and vaccine effectiveness in children with underlying conditions.