Outcomes and resource use of patients with large hemispheric infarction and cerebral edema: analysis of real-world data
Current Medical Research and Opinion, 2021
Large hemispheric infarction (LHI) is associated with a high likelihood of the evolution of life-threatening edema. Few studies have assessed real-world clinical outcomes and management strategies among patients with LHI. The objective of this study was to describe the management, in-hospital outcomes, and direct healthcare resource burden of patients with LHI, as well as those of patients with subsequent cerebral edema.
This observational, retrospective cohort study analyzed de-identified data from US adult patients using the IBM MarketScan Hospital Drug Database (Q4-2015 to Q4-2017). Patients were included in the "Possible LHI" or the "Other Ischemic Strokes" cohorts using ICD-10 diagnosis codes. Patients with possible LHI were further categorized into "LHI with Edema" and "LHI without Edema" subgroups using diagnosis and procedure codes. Select clinical and economic outcomes were compared between cohorts and subgroups using multivariable regressions.
Of 79,201 eligible encounters with ischemic strokes, 11,772 unique patients were assigned to the Possible LHI cohort while 67,429 were assigned to the Other Ischemic Strokes cohort. Among patients with possible LHI, 869 (7%) were assigned to the LHI with Edema subgroup and 10,903 (93%) were assigned to the LHI without Edema subgroup. Patients in the Possible LHI cohort had longer hospital stays (mean difference [MD] [95%CI] = 2.6 [2.4;2.8] days), higher total facility charges (MD [95%CI] = $28,656 [26,794;30,524]), and higher odds of death (odds ratio [95%CI] = 2.2 [2.0;2.4]) than the Other Ischemic Strokes cohort. Among patients with possible LHI, the incremental clinical and resource burden was further exacerbated in the subgroup of patients with edema (hospital days: MD [95%CI] = 5.0 [3.9;6.2] days; total facility charges: MD [95%CI] = $59,585 [50,816;67,583]; mortality: odds ratio [95%CI] = 10.3 [8.5;12.4]).
Among patients with ischemic strokes, LHI was associated with increased clinical management and direct healthcare resource burden in real-world hospital settings. The burden was substantially increased among patients who developed cerebral edema.