Real-World Racial Variation in Treatment and Outcomes among Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease

Advances in Therapy, 2023


Prior studies have found considerable disparities in prevalence and outcomes for patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD). This study compared rates of diagnostic testing, treatment patterns, and outcomes after diagnosis of PAD among commercially insured Black and White patients in the United States.


Optum's de-identified Clinformatics® Data Mart Database (1/2016-6/2021) were used to identify Black and White patients with PAD; first PAD diagnosis was deemed study index date. Baseline demographics, markers of disease severity, and healthcare costs were compared between cohorts. Patterns of medical management and rates of major adverse limb events (MALE; including acute or chronic limb ischemia, lower-limb amputation) and cardiovascular (CV) events (stroke, myocardial infarction) during the available follow-up period were described. Outcomes were compared between cohorts using multinomial logistic regression models, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, and Cox proportional hazards models.


A total of 669,939 patients were identified, with 454,382 White patients and 96,162 Black patients. Black patients were younger on average (71.8 years vs. 74.2 years), but had higher comorbid burden, concomitant risk factors, and CV medication use at baseline. Prevalence of diagnostic testing, revascularization procedures, and medication use was numerically higher among Black patients. Black patients were also more likely than the White patients to receive medical therapy without a revascularization procedure [adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.47 (1.44-1.49)]. However, Black patients with PAD had higher incidence of MALE and CV events than White patients [adjusted hazard ratio for composite event (95% CI) = 1.13, (1.11-1.15)]. Except myocardial infarction, the hazards of individual components of MALE and CV events were also significantly higher among Black patients with PAD.


Results of this real-world study suggest that Black patients with PAD have higher disease severity at the time of diagnosis and are at increased risk of experiencing adverse outcomes following diagnosis.

View abstract


Ferdinand KC, Sadik K, Browne R, Desai U, Lefebvre P, Lejeune D, Mahendran M, Laliberté F, Matay L, Armstrong DG