Treatment persistence and hospitalization rates among patients with schizophrenia: a quasi-experiment to evaluate a patient information program

Current Medical Research and Opinion. Apr 2017;33(4):713-721


The effective treatment of schizophrenia requires continuous antipsychotic maintenance therapy. However, poor persistencewith treatment is common among patients with schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to compare persistence and hospitalizationrates among patients with schizophrenia treated with long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotics (i.e. paliperidone palmitate and risperidone) and enrolled in a patient information program (program cohort) with patients treated with oral antipsychotics (OAs) who were not enrolled in a patient information program (nonprogram cohort).


Using a quasi-experimental design, data from chart reviews (for program patients) and Medicaid claims (for nonprogram patients) was analyzed. Patients were eligible if they had ≥12 months of pre-index data, ≥6 months of post-index data, and no hospitalization at index.


Persistence and hospitalization rates were assessed at 6 months post-index. Propensity score matching was used to control for observed differences in demographics and baseline clinical characteristics. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using generalized estimating equation models and adjusted for matched pairs and propensity score.


A total of 102 program patients were matched to 408 nonprogram patients with similar baseline characteristics. Adjusted ORs indicated that the persistence rate at 6 months was significantly higher for the program cohort (88.2%) versus the nonprogram cohort (43.9%; OR: 9.70; P < .0001). the 6 month post-index hospitalization rate for the program cohort (14.7%) was significantly lower versus the nonprogram cohort after adjustments (22.5%; or: 0.55; p =" 0.0321).">


The data for the program and nonprogram patients were from two different and independent data sources (healthcare claims and chart reviews, respectively). Results were based on a relatively small number of program LAI patients.


Program patients treated with LAI antipsychotics had higher persistence rates and significantly lower adjusted hospitalizationrates compared with nonprogram patients treated with OAs.

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Pilon D, Amos TB, Germain G, Lafeuille MH, Lefebvre P, Benson CJ