Incidence of Major Atherothrombotic Vascular Events among Patients with Peripheral Artery Disease after Revascularization
Annals of Vascular Surgery, 2021
Patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) treated with lower extremity revascularization are at increased risk of major atherothrombotic vascular events (acute limb ischemia (ALI), major non-traumatic lower-limb amputation, myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic stroke, and cardiovascular (CV)-related death). This study assessed the incidence of major atherothrombotic vascular events, venous thromboembolism (VTE) events and rates of subsequent lower extremity revascularizations in the real-world among patients with PAD after revascularization.
Patients aged ≥50 years with PAD who underwent peripheral revascularization were identified from Optum Clinformatics Data Mart claims database (Q1/2014-Q2/2019). The first lower extremity revascularization after PAD diagnosis was defined as index date. Incidence rates of major atherothrombotic vascular events (i.e., composite of ALI, major non-traumatic lower-limb amputation, MI, ischemic stroke, and CV-related death) and VTE were assessed during follow-up as the number of events divided by patient-years of observation (censored at the first event). Rates of subsequent revascularizations and VTE were estimated overall and compared between patients with major atherothrombotic vascular events and those without.
Of the 38,439 patients included, 6,675 (17.4%) had a major atherothrombotic vascular event during a median follow-up of 1.0 year. The composite major atherothrombotic vascular and VTE incidence rates were 13.81/100 patient years and 1.77/100 patient years, respectively, and 40.2% of patients experienced subsequent revascularizations. Patients with a post-revascularization major atherothrombotic vascular event had significantly higher rates of subsequent revascularizations (64.6% vs. 35.1%, standardized difference [SD] ≥10%) and VTE (4.6% vs. 2.1%, SD ≥10%) versus those without.
One-in-six PAD patients aged ≥50 years who underwent peripheral revascularization experienced a major atherothrombotic vascular event within one year, and consequently, experienced higher rates of subsequent revascularizations compared with those without a major atherothrombotic vascular event post-revascularization. These findings highlight the need to improve strategies to prevent major atherothrombotic vascular events after revascularization.