Predictors and clinical outcomes of treatment intensification in patients with type 2 diabetes uncontrolled on basal insulin in a real-world setting

Endocrine Practice. 2018 Sep;24(9):805-814.


To understand factors associated with intensification of basal insulin therapy and treatment impact on clinical outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D).


In this retrospective, observational study of the Practice Fusion electronic health record database, eligible patients were adults with T2D, ≥1 basal insulin prescription and office visit in the 6 months before a glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1C) test >7.0% (index date), and no other injectable prescriptions in the 12 months before the index date. Patients were categorized to intensifiers with injectables (rapid-acting insulin [RAI], glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist [GLP-1 RA], or other injectables) or nonintensifiers with injectables (including no change, adding an oral antidiabetes drug, or changing basal insulin dose). Principal outcomes were A1C change, hypoglycemia incidence, and change in body weight.


Among 14,653 patients, 2,121 (14.5%) and 12,532 (85.5%) were categorized as intensifiers and nonintensifiers with injectables, respectively. Compared with nonintensifiers, intensifiers were more likely to have an endocrinologist as the prescribing physician (odds ratio [OR], 2.52 [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.16 to 2.94]), hypertension (OR, 1.26 [95% CI, 1.08 to 1.47]), higher baseline A1C (OR, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.17 to 1.26]), obesity (OR, 1.17 [95% CI, 1.01 to 1.36]), and higher body mass index (OR, 1.02 [95% CI, 1.01 to 1.03]). In GLP-1 RA intensifiers, the baseline use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors increased the likelihood of intensification. GLP-1 RA intensifiers had equivalent glycemic control to RAI or other injectables, with a nonsignificantly lower risk of hypoglycemia and reduction in body weight.


Addition of GLP-1 RA to basal insulin may be an effective strategy for overcoming clinical inertia with injectable therapy in patients with T2D.


A1C = glycated hemoglobin A1c; BMI = body mass index; CI = confidence interval; DCSI = Diabetes Complications Severity Index; DPP-4 = dipeptidyl peptidase-4; EHR = electronic health record; GLP-1 RA = glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist; ICD-9-CM = International Classification of Diseases-Ninth Revision-Clinical Modification; ICD-10-CM = International Classification of Diseases-Tenth Revision-Clinical Modification; OAD = oral antidiabetes drug; OR = odds ratio; RAI = rapid-acting insulin; SGLT-2 = sodium-glucose cotransporter-2; T2D = type 2 diabetes.

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Kallenbach L, Shui AM, Cheng WY, Fan T, Hu W, Zichlin ML, Duh MS, Ye F, Levin PA